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Sunday, August 21, 2016

Zika - Zika virus symptoms

Zika - Zika virus

Zika virus is a single stranded RNA virus of the genus flavivirus positive (family Flaviviridae), first identified in 1947 in Uganda rain-forest Zika. Zika virus in humans causes an infectious viral disease called Zika fever, transmitted by the bite of a mosquito of the genus Aedes, infected with this virus.
Many decades Zika virus has been reported sporadically in Africa and Asia. Zika fever outbreaks were reported for the first time in the Pacific region in 2007 - Island of Yap and 2013 - French Polynesia, then in 2015 in Africa – Green Cape and South America - Brazil and Colombia.
Zika virus quickly spread to more countries in South America and Central America came to be reported in 13 countries in early 2016. By July 29, 2016, 42 countries and territories in the Americas have confirmed local transmission of the virus through mosquito Zika. Organization World Health Organization (WHO) announced on January 28, 2016 that 3-4 million people could be infected this year with Zika virus in America.
In Europe has not been confirmed Zika virus transmission by mosquitoes, but were reported more cases of infections with this virus in several countries.

How Zika virus is transmitted?

There are two Zika virus transmission cycles. The first cycle sylvatic (or Selvatica), involves a tank animal, non-human primates, and mosquito vector: Aedes africanus and Aedes luteocephalus. Humans is in this case only one host "accidental", being stung by chance while driving through the rain-forest and savannas bordering by a mosquito infected with the virus Zika.
This cycle of transmission is responsible for most cases sporadic. The second cycle is urban; virus is transmitted from human to human via mosquito vector Aedes aegypti (yellow fever mosquito) and Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito).
Most current epidemics in Latin America are due Aedes aegypti mosquito. The presence in the blood (viremia) of Zika virus is relatively short 3-5 days, but virions were detected in several biological fluids, including urine during the 10 days after infection, in saliva 3-5 days after infection and sperm to 15 days after infection.
Although the main route of transmission of the virus Zika, in humans, is the vector through mosquito bites, have been reported cases to transmit non-vectorial: perinatal (from mother to child transplacental or in fetal expulsion time), blood transfusion or sexual transmission.
The incubation period is 3-12 days after the bite of an infected mosquito. Most infections caused by Zika virus are asymptomatic (60-80%). In symptomatic cases, symptoms are usually mild and disappear within 2-7 days without deaths.

What are the symptoms of Zika virus infection?

The main symptoms are rash (macular exanthema or a papular, which initially appears on the face and then spreads throughout the body), moderate fever, arthralgia, myalgia, headache, conjunctivitis with conjunctival hyperemia non-purulent.
Have been described two alarming neurological complications, possibly caused by Zika virus: Guillain-Barré syndrome (a symmetrical ascending paralysis that sometimes reach to the four limbs and cranial nerves) and newborn microcephaly (small head abnormally).

How to diagnose Zika virus?

Biological laboratory diagnosis of infection with the virus Zika use direct virological techniques (RT-PCR) when the patient is consulted in the early days after the onset of clinical signs (generally up in 5-7 days) after the 5- 7 days in serological techniques (ELISA) which can often further reconfirmation of the diagnosis.

Zika virus prevention

Prevention involves reducing the number of mosquito bites in areas affected by illness. Preventive measures include using insect repellent products, using clothing to cover as large a portion of the body, mosquito nets and eliminate standing water areas because they are places where mosquitoes breed. Because of the epidemic, in 2015, Brazilian health officials have advised couples to avoid pregnancy, and pregnant women were advised not to travel to areas affected by the outbreak.