Alternative Cancer and Mesothelioma Treatments.RVR. Alternative Cancer and Mesothelioma Treatments.RVR.: Detection Of Lung - Signs and Symptoms of Lung Cancer
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Thursday, June 16, 2016

Detection Of Lung - Signs and Symptoms of Lung Cancer

About a quarter of all patients do not have symptoms suggestive when it determines the diagnosis of lung cancer. In such cases, the cancer is diagnosed by performing x-rays or computed tomography (CT) for other health problems.
The remaining patients (3/4) have certain symptoms, although some are nonspecific, which leads them to seek medical attention. Symptoms may therefore be a primary lung tumor, which can lead to local compression or metastasis and can spread through the body. In some cases, the location of the primary tumor is the lung, but it seems this reason, the clinical picture can vary greatly from patient to patient.
Symptoms of lung cancer are classified as primary tumors induced symptoms induced by loco-regional invasion, metastasis have occurred or due to abnormal hormone production outside the womb.

Symptoms of lung cancer

The main symptoms of lung cancer include:

  • Cough: suddenly, a chronic smoker has a cough that changes its main characteristics (if it becomes violent, agonizing, more frequent, where the tone changes). A cough that persists over time should be a warning sign for the patient and will need to see your doctor to investigate its origin;
  • Hemoptysis (bloody sputum or frank bleeding) occurs in a significant percentage of patients and can even be the first symptom or one who, through his spectacular appearance, refer the patient to a specialist. The amount of blood expectorated is not very important, so even if you are just bloody streaks, the patient should be alarmed;
  • Wheezing occurs due to obstructions caused by tumors or inflammation can result interspersed accompanying development of malignancies;
  • Chest pain occurs in 1/4 of the patients. Chronic pain is often boring and localized, diffuse damage being caused by tumor invasion structures around the lungs;
Dyspnoea may be caused by the tumor itself, which by its size, it provides a compression that gets into the respiratory tree structures, but can also be caused by pleural effusion or expansion and invasion of lung parenchyma, and its functionality is compromised;
Repeated infections: lung, upper respiratory tract, pneumonia or bronchitis may be a warning sign suggestive of lung cancer. Besides the mentioned symptoms, pleural effusion and chest pain, very intense due to neoplastic infiltration of the chest wall and pleura, a cause increased relatively localized peripheral adenocarcinoma, which should lead to emergency consultation of the doctor.
Patients are advised to consult a doctor immediately if you notice symptoms suggestive of lung or respiratory diseases. 
Amid a long history of smoking or given that there are other risk factors (exposure to asbestos or radon) visit to the doctor should not be delayed under these conditions:
  • Cough, bloody sputum;
  • Dyspnea and wheezing;
  • Persistent chest pain and aggravation;
  • Weight loss, malaise;
  • Other symptoms and signs, which suggest an complications of lung cancer and para-neoplastic syndromes.

Laboratory tests: 

Patients are advised to consult your doctor to investigate health diagnosis and determining appropriate treatment. Lung cancer symptoms are relatively nonspecific and very thorough investigation must be patient for this reason.
Medical history is one of laboratory investigations, which may cause the initial onset of symptoms and their evolution in time. Family and personal history are very important, and the doctor must ask the patient about all the details.
Risk factors, and there should be specific, smoking is linked to lung cancer extended and symptoms of pulmonary appear on land prone (genetic or acquired) of lung cancer will be made investigations more targeted and diagnosis will be established soon. Patients are advised to be honest with your doctor and do not hide the fact that smoking or working in an environment with potentially toxic. The information obtained may aid physicians in formulating a diagnosis of suspicion, which will subsequently be subjected to revisions, based on data obtained from investigations specialist.
Medical history shows that cachectic patients have respiratory failure, and after performing a physical examination General, finds that about two-thirds of cases of lung cancer diagnosis is already in the advanced stage of lung cancer.
Other symptoms of lung cancer, which attract attention on physical examination include:
  • Supraclavicular lymphadenopathy, lymph nodes, lymph located;
  • Signs of Horner syndrome (compression exerted on the cervical sympathetic plexus, a sign of the tumor localization, superior apical): ipsilateral-ptosis, miosis, anhidrosis and enophtalmia;
  • Diminished or absent breath sounds, where the tumor to cause lung collapse;
  • Dullness to percussion and decreased respiratory noises (where only part of the lung is affected);
  • Hepatomegaly painful (if there is an involvement of the liver cancer);
  • Bone pain (ribs), very sensitive to touch, indicating the existence;
  • Focal neurological deficits or signs of spinal cord compression;

Detection Of Lung

Therefore, investigation of a patient with suspected lung cancer is very complex and includes:
  • Chest X-ray that can highlight or reveal anomalies located in the parenchyma. Most often they are seen solitary nodules or masses that may be confluent with nodules to form larger structures radiopaque. Not all formations of cancers are shown on an x-ray. There are, for example, more benign formations that may arise, as well as calcium deposits or fibrous scar. X-rays investigations are first made in this case.
  • Computed tomography (CT) is useful both in assessing the existence of cancerous lesions local, but also for determining the metastatic potential extension of the body. With full scan, can be investigate simultaneously the abdomen and pelvis, especially liver and adrenal glands, the most common places of lung metastases. If neurological symptoms are present, it can be carried to the brain CT. Most surgeons prefer the patient to conduct such investigations in order to more precisely locate the tumor and to determine whether or not it is possible resection. If symptoms are severe, your doctor may decide to carry out immediately a CT, X-rays are not helpful in this situation. CT advantages compared to conventional radiography consist in the fact that the CT provides a multidimensional view of the body, while not test. A bone scan is an investigation is necessary because the bone is another favorite, location of lung metastases. If patients present skeletal pain, those bones need to be scanned to determine with certainty if there is a bone invasion.
  • Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a very useful investigation for the investigation of patients with signs of spinal cord compression. This is an investigation, more sensitive than computed tomography to assess central nervous system metastases. If after performing imaging tests, the results seem to suggest the presence of a tumor, most likely, will be further analysis and investigation. For the purpose of determining the nature of a biopsy of the tumor will be a tumor (benign or malignant), or to remove a small amount of pleural fluid, where there are pleural effusion.
  • Biopsy may be performed under the guidance tomography not penetrate other organs in the vicinity. It is a particular favorite method, where the tumor is located on the periphery of the lung, and can be accessed by per-cutaneous puncture. If the tumor is located in the parenchyma, most likely, will be investigated directly by bronchoscopy. Fine needle biopsy is recommended if the tumor is localized to the lung periphery and is therefore scope inaccessible. Under the guidance of imaging, the doctor will locate the tumor and will introduce a per-cutaneous needle inside the tumor. It will be harvested and then a sample of tissue that can be examined under a microscope by a pathologist to determine the nature of the tumor. The procedure is performed under local anesthesia, patient discomfort is minimal. Complication most feared (and more frequently) is iatrogenic pneumothorax appearance. The incidence of complications is 3-5%, and despite the fact that the disease can be quite dangerous, is recognized and treated promptly, so that the patient is not in danger.
  • Bronchoscopy is the preferred method in the case where the cancer site is essential. Bronchoscopy can determine the extent of the tumor and determine whether or not the phenomena obstructive tumor. The procedure itself is one bronchoscope - endoscopy, a thin, flexible tube at one end has a camera, images are captured and transmitted to an external monitor. A bronchoscope is inserted through the mouth or nose, then along the trachea. Using scope's doctor gets to examine alternative: trachea and bronchi.
Other endoscopic procedures include:
  • Mediastinoscopy procedure, which is: performed to assess mediastinal lymph node status and to evaluate whether the cancer was extended in mediastinal structures. Achieving it is recommended prior to surgical procedures for resecting the tumor.
  • Thoracoscopy is reserved for tumors that remain undiagnosed, even after conducting guided bronchoscopy, CT scan or biopsy. Thoracoscopy has also an important role in the management of malignant pleural effusions.
  • MRI and CT examination to: determine the extent of the disease, especially peripheral location.
Very important in the diagnosis of lung cancer are:
  • Sputum cytology: it is very important because tumors located in central endobronchial can peel malignant cells, which are then removed by sputum (a viscous substance that can be eliminated through coughing);
  • Finding blood cell count is important, to identify possible diseases like anemia, coagulation disorders, electrolyte imbalance. Blood counts should be performed by a specialist therapist chimiostatic;
  • Paraneoplastic syndromes are associated with lung cancer and can affect different organs and functions including neurological, endocrine, dermatology, rheumatology, hematology and ophthalmic syndromes, such as syndrome Trousseau.
  • The determination of pulmonary function for: detecting the occurrence of an obstructive syndrome as a result of the compression exerted by the tumor, the lung parenchyma and airways.